All Care Guides

Alopecia

Alopecia is the medical term used to describe hair loss. Alopecia can occur when hair fails to grow at a normal rate, or when hair is lost more quickly than it can grow back. Alopecia should not be confused with increased shedding. Shedding (even year-round shedding in some pets) is a normal process and is not an illness. Shedding should only be a cause for concern if it is heavy enough to create areas of thinning hair or baldness consistent with alopecia.

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Anal Sac Disease

Anal sacs are a set of glands that are just under the skin near your pet’s anus. The two glands arelocated at the 4:00 and 8:00 o’clock positions from the anus. The anal sacs fill with a foul-smelling fluid that is normally expressed through a tiny duct when animals defecate. Animals may use their anal glands to mark territory or repell aggressors, although a nervous dog or cat may accidentally express these glands when frightened.

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Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Horses

Infection with A. phagocytophilumis a tick-borne infectious disease spread by Ixodes species ticks. This infection often occurs from spring through fall due to increased tick activity during this time of year. Illness usually occurs shortly after the tick bite. Affected horses may suddenly show signs such as appetite loss, fever, lethargy (tiredness), reluctance to move, and fluid accumulation on the lower limbs, which indent when pressed with a finger. Affected horses often develop a fever of 103°F or higher (normal temperature range for adult horses: 99°F to 101.5°F). If your horse suddenly develops these signs, it is important to contact your veterinarian. Usually, only one horse on a property is infected with A. phagocytophilum; however, multiple horses on one property are occasionally affected.

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Anemia in Cats

Anemia develops when the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream is reduced.  Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. 

There are many different causes and types of anemia.  Anemia may result from blood loss, the destruction of red blood cells within the body, or the inability of the body to produce enough red blood cells.  The type of anemia depends on its cause.  For instance, a severe injury that causes bleeding externally or internally can result in blood loss that causes anemia. 

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Antibiotic Therapy for Ear Infections

The medical term for an ear infection is otitis. Ear infections generally begin as inflammation of the skin inside the outer ear canal (the tube-shaped part of the ear visible under the ear flap). Once inflammation is present, discharge, redness, and other characteristics of an ear infection become established. Inflammation of the canal leads to the overgrowth of normal bacteria and yeast that live in the ear; other “opportunistic” bacteria can also take advantage of the inflammation and unhealthy environment inside the ear to establish infection. The overgrowth of these organisms causes more inflammation and other unhealthy changes inside the ear. In some cases, ear infections that start in the outer ear canal can progress to involve the middle ear and inner ear. Deep infections can lead to deafness and other complications.

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